Valuations

Other Valuations

Share-based compensation & ESOP valuations

Share-based compensation (Equity compensation) is a method of paying employees, executives, and directors of a company with equity in the business. It is typically used to incentivize employees apart from normal salary compensation.

ESOP and other share-based compensation are slightly more popular outside of Singapore such as in the United States and the UK. ESOPs have become an effective tool for liquidity in corporate finance and tax planning.

Financial instrument valuation

The principles of valuating financial instruments are frequently involved in financial reporting, investment suitability, adjusting to business and regulatory environment, and even in assessment of securities fraud matters.

Some of the areas we are deal with:

  • Share options
  • Convertible bonds
  • Convertible preference shares
  • Warrants
  • Futures / Forward contracts
  • Call / Put options
  • Financial guarantees
  • Structured deposit contracts
  • Equity-linked Instruments

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Our Process

Identify the valuation purpose, scope, parameter & requirements

Gather relevant documents & information from client, and through external sources

Determine valuation approach, methods, inputs, assumptions, & other parameters

Conduct valuation and compile findings into detailed report for explanation to client

Frequently Asked Questions

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01
What are some of the valuation methods for valuing intangible assets?

The methodologies used to value intangible assets are slightly different and can be complex to the standard valuation methods. Some of the methods are the Multi-Period Excess Earnings (MPEE) Method and the Relief from Royalty method.

Whilst the methodologies are one factor, the main skillset involved is determining the application of valuation inputs and using the most appropriate method.

02
What can be considered an intangible asset?

Firstly, an intangible asset has to fulfil these criteria; it does not have physical substance, it is individual identifiable, and is non-monetary in nature. A general classification of intangible assets is:

Marketing related = Trademarks, newspaper mastheads, internet domains

Customer and supplier related = Customer list, production backlog, customer contracts and relationships

Artistic related = Books, operas, musical works, pictures, videos

Technology related = Patents, computer software, database, non-patented technology, trade secret like recipes

Contract related = Licenses, royalties, leases, franchise, rights, employment contracts

03
What is one valuation method used to value customer-related intangible assets?

As mentioned earlier, the MPEE method is often used in valuing customer-related intangible assets. It is a financial model that estimates revenues and cash flows derived from the customer-related intangible asset and then deduct portions of the cash flow that can be attributed to supporting assets, such as a brand name or fixed assets that contributed to the generation of the cash flows, sometimes referred to as “supporting asset charges.”

The resulting cash flow, which is attributable solely to the customer-related intangible asset, is then discounted at a rate of return commensurate with the risk of the asset to calculate a present value.

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